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My Big Issue With The Teen Rumored to Have Made $72 Million in the Stock Market

   Posted On: December 16, 2014  |    Posted In: Millennials  |     Posted by: Broke Millennial®

IMG_2514Between when I penned this on Monday evening and Tuesday morning, the New York Observer already debunked Mohammed Islam’s fiction. However, the point of my post goes beyond my great skepticism of his initial claim, so I’ve decided to publish it as is.

Unless you’re one of those people who avoid the news – yeah, yeah it’s depressing – and swore off social media you’ve probably heard about Mohammed “Mo” Islam. The media is already going bonkers calling him everything from the investment wunderkind to Wolf of Wall St Jr. (not a moniker I’d want). In case you’re unfamiliar with Mo, he’s a 17-year-old student in New York City who is rumored to have made $72 million trading. Now, Mo has denied the $72 million figure, but confirmed his net worth is in the high eight figures*.

If Mo’s story is true – which I sincerely doubt – then he’ll be the greatest investor of all time. Yes, beating out the almighty Buffet.

The sensational story of Mo broke in New York Magazine earlier this week and spawned a ton of articles proving journalists were merely regurgitating tidbits from New York Mag instead of doing their due-diligence. Both Yahoo! Finance and Business Insider stepped up to be something of a voice of reason. Yahoo! Finance reporter Jeff Macke wrote, “What Islam is claiming lies somewhere along the lines of Charles Ponzi’s scheme and stories of Paul Bunyon forming Minnesota’s 10,000 Lakes with his massive footsteps.”

But the poor reporting and the ridiculous rumor aren’t what bother me. If Mo did indeed build even a million dollars playing the market all by himself at the age of 17, without seed money from his parents, then good for him.

No, what bothers me is that Mo is a boy.

Story, after story, after story of remarkable investors, entrepreneurs and financial wunderkinds focus on men. A fact I’ve already grown remarkably sensitive to as of late, was further reinforced when I started doing some digging on Mo.

This isn’t the first time Mo earned media attention. In November of 2013, Business Insider published The 20 Under 20: Meet The Teen Traders Trying to Take Over the Finance World. Mo made this list, along with 19 male peers. Not a single girl or young woman in 2013 counted as a teen trader to watch. Where are all the women in finance?

Take a poll of most articles in finance highlighting the movers and shakers. It’s rare to read about a woman and even when you do, it’s more rare to read about one with investing chops.

Now, there are notably successful women in business who’ve received a decent amount of press: Sophia Amoruso, Sara Blakely, and Sheryl Sandberg to name a few. But it irks me that the financial world – especially investing – remains largely a boys club. (Seriously, try Googling “best investors in the world” and see who pops up).

Even when you take a quick poll of personal finance blogs, women (myself included) tend to stick to more emotional, less hard-hitting subjects. Instead of dishing out investment advice, we write about how to budget for a family, or handle gift giving or pinchpennies to help pay down debt. (Yes, I’m painting with a broad brush for the sake of argument.)

Why is that?

Personally, I don’t feel qualified to give investment advice. I don’t have a degree in finance. I haven’t taken a Series 65 or Series 6 or Series 7 nor Series 63 exam. I’m neither a CFA nor a CFP. Simply put, all I know of investing is what I’ve read and done myself. I also prefer to keep my net worth and specific investment decisions off the worldwide web.

But perhaps this is where gender roles and stereotypes come into play.

I’ve noticed plenty of male bloggers who don’t have any qualifications other than investing their own money still write about how to invest. And lots of women bloggers who have experience in the field still relegated themselves to the “softer” subjects.

Is it that women don’t feel confident enough to give advice unless we’ve passed a series of tests and certifications while men don’t wrestle with such thoughts? Sexist as though that statement may be, I’m curious why those of us with a double-X chromosome seem less likely to really do a deep dive into a investing and why so few women seem keen on joining the ranks of stock brokers or hedge fund managers?

We push STEM fields now and promote toys, games, stories and educational courses to encourage girls and young women to enter male-dominated fields. Why aren’t we doing this with finance? Why not encourage young girls and women to play in the stock market, become stockbrokers, analysts, or overall mavens of industry?

So, I implore parents to encourage their daughters to consider finance and economics. I implore men to recognize their sexism and encourage women to join their ranks in investing. I request other women writing on financial issues to consider taking on heftier topics. And I hope journalists also start featuring women in articles other than those offering budget tips, or debt repayment strategies or how to afford vacation for a family of four.

And if anyone brings Janet Yellen into this as an argument, that’s the same as saying racism is over because Obama is the president.

*Then back tracked and came clean about earning $0.

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45 responses to “My Big Issue With The Teen Rumored to Have Made $72 Million in the Stock Market

  1. I read that on the news somewhere last night. What is wrong with people?
    I actually think that’s an interesting observation about how men and women make different choices when it comes to writing about investing. I write about money for a living but never write about investing unless I am interviewing someone or doing a research piece. I don’t have a degree in finance so I don’t feel qualified. You are so right, though! Plenty of men without any credentials write about investing all the time! Why is that?

    1. Yahoo! Finance’s video on it is hilarious and worth watching. I actually almost mentioned you in this piece by name as an example of a woman who really digs deep into issues (specifically insurance). But I didn’t want to get into the naming game and call people out directly.

  2. It’s hard to say this guy was even in “finance” at all. Day trading is about the exact opposite of what produces revenue at the typical i-bank. Wealth management, M+A, algo trading, underwriting, etc is where it’s at. Not exactly glamorous work and very unlikely to lead to eye-catching headlines that will get women (or men) noticed.

    Nobody really cares if you just closed a billion dollar acquisition or spin off and worked late nights and weekends doing so. 🙂

    I think this guy’s story of making $72 mln made headlines because that’s what the lowest common denominator thinks financial wizards do.

    1. I’d argue that stock brokers still have more of a boy’s club than the over all banking world. While it’s certainly still male-dominated, I can come up with more well-known women in banking than investing. But you’re right about why this made headlines.

    1. I thought of her when writing this. I’ll refer you to the last line of my post and ask you to substitute Rachel for Janet Yellen. And I wonder why she isn’t included in best investor type articles considering her young age…?

  3. “And if anyone brings Janet Yellen into this as an argument, that’s the same as saying racism is over because Obama is the president.”

    Love that last line 🙂

  4. I’ve recently been reading “The Confidence Code” and it talks a lot about how women don’t feel qualified to do certain things, even when they are. So I can see how if you don’t feel qualified to write about something, you won’t, even if someone else is doing it. I consider myself well-versed in personal finance, but would never write about investing.

  5. I’ve worked at a discount brokerage for the last 9 years. We all have the Series 7 and 63. I can’t speak about employment across the board, but at our call center, a solid half of the staff are women, and female managers are in the majority. That doesn’t mean any of us, male or female, are necessarily successful active traders, capable of outsized gains on the stock and options markets. I would argue that such persons, if they exist, are passingly rare, or liars, as Mo Islam’s story makes clear.

    1. Nice to know there is gender equality in your office. To clarify my point, I’m not saying women should be spouting off about outsized gains — rather that when you see a list of notable investors (or most finance focused lists) to see more women represented. I’d like to have some women to look up to as investors instead of hearing about Buffet, Icahn, and Bogle all the time.

      1. Thanks for the reply. You made me curious. Surely such women exist, whether they are referred to a lot is another question. Do an internet search on “50 leading women in hedge funds 2013.” I don’t know whether they do public interviews, but they appear to be “out there,” as it were.

  6. Hi Erin,

    First off, I have to reiterate what Ben said about that last comment…pure gold

    I have to say, though, that Janet Yellen becoming Fed Chairman was extremely significant as she’s arguably the most powerful person in the US and thus, the world. I assume the lack of media coverage is owed to a lack of understanding of what the Fed actually does. Having said that, I still don’t see girls saying “I want to be like her when I grow up” so your points remain valid – a lot of which I’ve witnessed first hand.

    I studied Economics and there was 1 girl in the entire Major (out of roughly 100). There were plenty more female engineers than economists. Most of the girls I knew studied Accounting, Communications and/or Marketing.

    The disparity improved dramatically when I sat for my “Series Tests.” Without an official count, I would estimate that it was a 70/30 split. Not ideal, obviously, but much improved from what I was used to.

    There have been numerous studies that show Women as being more Risk-Averse than Men which could partially answer the questions of “Why more women aren’t active traders” and “Why women don’t blog about the stock market.” I encourage you to Google “Nasdaq Women vs Men Risk Aversion” to see how men typically engage in riskier activity: drugs, gambling, not wearing a seat belt, and most relevant – investing.

    I don’t necessarily see the lack of women interested in investing as an occupation concerning because there are many days when I would prefer to have a more creative role; but, there is a problem if women’s lack of interest in investing prevents them from ultimately reaching their retirement/financial goals.

    1. Thanks for sharing your story Hunter. I appreciate you taking the time to comment. I agree that Yellen is incredibly significant, but stand by saying it doesn’t mean the problems over.

      What I truly find concerning are the minimal numbers of women to look up to in finance. And the fact that while they exist, few get recognition unless a reporter is pulling together a list specifically about women.

      I do think the risk-aversion can prevent women from reaching retirement/financial goals, especially if she allows a husband or male figure to control the money and has the potential to be left alone with no understanding of her financial holdings or none what-so-ever. Part of me (probably naively) believes more women role models can help reduce the risk-aversion.

  7. I have a degree in economics (there were only a handful of women in my program), a law degree where I focused on numbers subjects and a job where I have to know what the market is doing. To top it all off, I read about this stuff all the time. Yet last week, I got a pang of “oh crap should I have suggested that?” when I told a coworker to ditch her actively managed funds for index funds because of the expense ratios. With all of that, I still don’t feel qualified. I don’t understand it, but it’s a real problem.

    1. I’m starting to think more and more this would be an interesting case study, especially with women like you who are qualified.

  8. I am only 4 months away from graduating with my MBA in Finance. I was originally going to write the first CFA exam this month, but now that I’m no longer pursuing a career in investment banking, I’m skipping out (no reason to needlessly suffer, you know!)

    Women are grossly outnumbered in the Finance specialization at my school. I don’t know whose fault that is. I know that it’s painfully hard and I spent at least 90% of this past semester convinced I was not smart enough myself. Turns out I am, but that didn’t make the courses any less difficult (I was so terrified by my Financial Derivatives class I read two additional books outside my textbook on trading options and understanding markets.)

    I don’t write extensively on investing because that’s not really what the average person saddled with student loan debt and earning <$50,000 a year needs. I find a lot of young people, myself included, are eager to invest but they'll do it wrong if you let them out of the gate. They're going to lose money that would be better applied elsewhere. With investing, you don't have to be prepared to risk your cash but you do have to be prepared not to touch it for years and years. With 20-somethings rushing to get married, buy cars and buy houses, telling them to let $25,000 alone in the market is a tall order. They lack perspective, they lack discipline, and they lack the financial stability to do it.

    All that said, I'm trying to take Money After Graduation in the direction of heavier financial topics, but I'm cautious about segmenting my audience and leaving those just starting out on their financial journey in the dust.

    Investing is a tough subject because it's so variable. It's personal in a way saving or budgeting is not, no matter how many times we chant "personal finance is personal". Our biases are in our home countries and industries, and stock tips we hear from family & friends. My investing savvy and sharing has very little to do with my chromosomes, it has almost everything to do with my personality and brand, and that is delivering what my readers need and want.

    AS for the gender problem, I've got the MBA in Finance so I'd say I've done my part.

    1. Your most recent post fits so perfectly with your final line. However, I’d challenge you that you’ve done your part once you’re a household name and a role model for girls and young women to look up to instead of the common men’s names! 😛 Challenge accepted?

      I agree that investing (like all things finance) are personal. However, we still often recommend young people (even those with debt or major life purchases) save for retirement. It’s hard to save for retirement without investing in the stock market, especially if it’s in an IRA or 401(k). So there is always room for a little investing talk. I get with your brand you feel it may not make sense to lean heavy on investing, but perhaps a post every once in a blue moon would like break some stereotypes.

      P.S. It’s always been incredibly clear to me that you’re smart enough. Glad you proved it to yourself!

  9. You’re making the assumption that what men do should be the standard of success for all people. For the blogger example, maybe it’s not best for people with no formal training to promote detailed and complex investing strategies. Women garner (on a statistical level) better investing results than men do because they tend to take a more passive approach. Personally, I find passive investing to be fairly simple and frankly boring to read or talk about week after week, yet I am investing and satisfied with my portfolio’s gains. Much more interesting to me is how to free up more money to put toward investments (through disciplined budgeting and frugality). I don’t see why my approach should change just because it appears that some men prefer to talk about investing more frequently or in more detail (and, again, on a population level are lowering their investing returns due to their enthusiasm for activity).

    I enjoyed this post, Erin – keep it up!

    1. I always love your thoughtful opinions and points of view! You keep me on my toes. I did not mean to present men as the gold standard of success, but simply point that qualified women in PF blogging don’t always discuss investing while non-qualified men often (in my humble opinion) do. So I’d prefer to have more variety in the voices being represented. I do appreciate you bringing up the point about women garnering better results from a passive approach. And that I’d like to see more women represented in the media as savvy in both personal finance and investing.

  10. This is purely personal reasoning, but the reason I don’t talk more about investing is not because I don’t “feel” qualified. It’s because I am not a trained or certified professional and I don’t want to lead others to financial harm through my lack of recognized formal financial education. That’s the rub for me and I think many other successful, smart, money-savvy women may feel the same: they don’t want to hurt others. I don’t think men stop to think about things in that personal framework, and that’s the difference (when we’re talking equally unqualified men and women writing about financial topics, anyway). And maybe ego has something to do with it, too. Because I have shared my personal investing experiences and opinions before, many times, but instead of highlighting my own achievements or focusing on how much I know, I encourage people to keep asking questions, keep researching, keep reading lots of other sources. I could care less if someone thinks I’m financially smart or successful. I care about helping other people increasing their financial education and achieving their own financial success, and I can do that without tooting my own horn.

    Interesting and thought provoking post 🙂 Thanks for starting a discussion!

    1. You can talk about investing without tooting your own horn too! I always appreciate how diligent of a writer you are. You research very thoroughly and I see you as a prime person to write about investing from time-to-time. It doesn’t have to be heavy-duty stock picking, but something to mix up the PF blogosphere with a bit! And I agree that the stereotype of women tending to worry more about the consequences and others feelings seems to often hold up.

  11. One thing I’ve noticed that irks me is that male readers don’t seem to be drawn to female leaders. And I don’t think it’s because of the women- just think about someone like you or Holly at Club Thrifty who write from a very neutral perspective. It seems to me that men, subconsciously or not, don’t like to follow women. It’s very apparent in the PF space. Male bloggers have a diverse audience of men and women, female bloggers, however, don’t seem to get that same traction among men.

  12. I’m a CPA and known by my coworkers, friends, and peers as an investing nut, but when questioned by others about what they should do, I have no problem offering up my opinion, but it always starts with a “I’m not licensed as an advisor but…” statement. My advice is always pretty dull & boring in that it mirrors my own investing ideology – Keep costs low, stick to diversified active but mostly passively managed mutual funds, go the ROTH option almost 100% of the time, avoid taxes if and when possible. This approach has been successful and thus I have no qualms offering advice up to others because a) it always comes with the disclaimer and b) it is safe compared to other methods of investing.

    Getting my fiancee to become passionate and interested in investing is as frustrating as when she tries to get me to go to the doctor. Sometimes I think the issue that stops many people is that they believe it to be too detailed, too complex. Sometimes I wonder if it’s just the avoidance of risk in that men are shown to be greater risk takers and that this high risk word of real investing is something that turns my fiancee and other women off. I honestly don’t know though.

    1. This was a fantastic article and I truly identify with the sentiments expressed.

      To your comment, Colin, I am one of those women who is “risk averse.” While I have an interest in finance and investing, I tend to like very black and white financial outcomes (I was a math major, I very much so like right or wrong answers!). I find the gray areas of investing to be intimidating and sometimes scary.

      My hope for myself and for other women interested in finance is that encouraging (and supporting) one another to increase our knowledge of investing will lead us to feeling less “scared” and more empowered.

  13. Interesting, I didn’t know that this story ended up being a scam as I really only saw the headline and then never really looked into it. I find it surpising that there wouldn’t be a single girl on that list though!

    I went to a very male dominated school with mostly engineers, but in my major of business and technology the split was more even with 60/40 guys to girls. I know this is only ancedotal evidence but a large majority of people in this program were there for finance including the girls in my classes. Wall Street heavily recruited from our school and I know quite a few were working at Goldman, BoA, JP Morgan, etc. So there definitely are some out there!

  14. Very interesting post, Erin. As a CFP for 23 years, I can say with great sadness that women are incredibly underrepresented in the finance world. It’s been a traditional male-dominated field, but I do see some positives on the horizon. There are more women stepping into the field, but even better, their differences are actually being seen as an advantage. I know in my office, many of my male counterparts (all competent financial advisors themselves) marvel at the regular stream of clients I have coming into my office, but that is by design. Many male financial advisors build relationships solely based investment growth. The problem is that investments will never just increase and when client’s see their accounts decrease, they go on the hunt for a new advisor. Whereas I have built relationships with my clients – I’m not just their trader. Broker Dealers are recognizing that relationships matter and women are leading the way with building long-term, successful relationships with clients.

    I don’t talk about investments at The Heavy Purse for two reasons. First, it is a separate business from my financial planning practice. And for legal and fiduciary requirements, I can’t talk about investments beyond the most generalized sense. Secondly, I fully believe in holistic financial planning focused on individual needs/goals, etc. I see so many people who blindly follow investment advice without really considered whether it’s appropriate for them. And when you are sharing investment advice on a blog, it has to be generic and you have zero responsibility to those who follow your advice, whether they should or shouldn’t. This is something I am not comfortable with so even if I could – I don’t think I would.

    I suspect one reason you see fewer woman share investment advice – whether they are credentialed or not – is because woman are more likely to be worried about the “what ifs” and play it safe. It’s both a good and bad response because I do see some really bad advice shared as though it is gospel.

    You may have seen that commercial about the young girl being told she couldn’t do “science”, this happens with finance too and we need to recognize the error and danger of that thinking! We need more women in finance and it needs them too!

  15. I don’t feel comfortable talking about specific investment strategy other than the generic mention of low cost index funds. I use a financial adviser to help me deal with my serious investment risk aversion. Maybe its because I grew up low income. I would have never made it to early retirement without them. I do like to hear/read about others methods and how they process company financial details in order to select a stock to invest in but I am not looking for hard financial advise on blogs. I mostly follow FI/PF blogs because I am interested in more rounded FI/PF lifestyle based info and tips which includes mostly female FI/PF bloggers. I have made and saved money. I spent 31 years as an engineer and I get numbers. My primary interest is in living a balanced and happy life. What I value is the other side of FI. I think female bloggers have more male followers than they think they have. We just don’t communicate as well. I probably typed more words here than I said all day.

  16. Well said. I’ve thought about this a lot lately and sometimes questioned my own tack in my posts. But, I write about what I know and what I’m passionate about and what I feel comfortable sharing. I just don’t think I have the investing chops to offer in-depth advice. That being said, you’re spot on about some men not caring that they similarly lack the qualifications to give advice. I have to do what’s genuine for me and I think I find my own ways to lean in.

    I also don’t think that lifestyle or “softer topic” posts are any less instrumental in helping people with their finances. I don’t put a higher value on articles strictly about investing, if that makes sense. I believe in a holistic approach to personal finance and I think there’s a place for a broad spectrum of writing.
    Thank you for sharing this and for starting this conversation!

  17. Mo would a very lucky teenager on earth, if that is true. By the way, I and my wife are raising my daughter really well. We provide her with advice on finance and savings. Both of us expect that she’ll be taking up accountancy or finance management. Based on what I observe, I think she’ll be pursuing the course we want.

  18. Speaking as a lawyer in the legal profession, while about 50% or more of most law school graduates are women, the further into the legal career you get, the fewer women there are. And I have to say the reason is because of family. Being a lawyer requires intense commitment and round the clock availability. Over time, with kids and a home, most women end up leaving their legal jobs. I just spoke to one women who is middle-aged who left a prominent law firm because she “wanted to leave work everyday at 5pm”. The problem is that intense careers sometimes push us to make tough choices about priorities and commitment. I wish I could work 8 hours a day and being a successful lawyer, but that would never happen.

  19. I too don’t feel qualified to talk about investments or things of that nature. I do invest (via my 401K) but otherwise, I haven’t done much with investing at all. Instead, I tend to write about finance/money in ways that I know and how they affect me and my life. You bring up some interesting points.

  20. Well, as you know, I hate the fact that women are underrepresented in the world of finance, specifically in trading. It’s hard for women to get attention as good traders because a trading desk is literally the toughest place on the trading floor for a women. The other traders pretty much treat new women like sh&t and don’t take the time to mentor and educate them. This frustrates the women and leads them to other places in or out of the bank. As far as why men bloggers talk more investing than women, I think it’s a need to feel intelligent and important more than anything else and women don’t care as much. For me, I have written about investments in the past, but honestly investments are such a small part of your financial success that it is not a topic that I am completely interested in delving into in depth. I want people to invest, but 90% of your investment returns come down to asset allocation and the other 10% comes from your actual investments. So investments pretty much have a 10% importance level with me and that’s how they are represented on my blog.

  21. I mean, I feel like female:male representation in finance is disproportionate due to all the usual suspects:
    1. Women are systematically taught not to believe in their own capabilities. Especially in math. If you’ve been told girls are bad at math your entire childhood, as a woman you’re less likely to be sure of all technical/math-related work you do in the future.
    2. Women are on average more risk-averse. This is probably largely a socially-fueled thing, but women are taught early they need to be more afraid of the world, more focused on stability than men. And when a field like finance is considered “high risk” in its most glamorized forms (which isn’t all that accurate, but it is the perception of the field), women are less likely to be drawn to it than the “sure thing” (which we are increasingly finding out is anything but).
    3. Finance is not a “caring” field. It’s unclear whether fields like nursing, teaching, etc. are female-dominated because they are considered “nurturing” and “caring” professions or if women were shuttled there first and then the stereotype followed. Either way, finance has a pretty bad rap for being self-serving and ruthless, which probably gives women some pause if they’ve been told by society for generations they need to be helpful and caring in their jobs.
    4. Straight up sexism. Old boys clubs. The line drawn between the “assertive” man and the “bitchy woman”. Etc etc etc. It all gets in the way of creating dominant female role models within any given field.

  22. Quite interesting topic. I think women have been left aside when it comes to finance, but the modern world is providing with so many opportunities for them to engage in finance education and investment options

  23. You make an interesting point and the comments make interesting reading too. I’m reading up on economics at the moment and all the books and schools of thought are from a male perspective. I suppose you would expect that given that a lot of the stuff I’m covering is 50-100 years old, but even modern economists are almost exclusively male.

  24. Look at the photo of those two in the retraction story: of course he is not a multi-millionaire. Look at his phone!

    Just kidding. But a flip phone is a curious sign.

    Agreed that there’s a disparity between the sexes in personal finance writing. I feel other groups are similarly underrepresented.

  25. Hmm…where to start with this one? I often wonder why I don’t get into more investment advice, but I know I stop myself due to potential legal issues (in addition to the fact that I have no formal training/education in finance other than a few college courses). I will be focusing on more of the softer, traditionally female-dominated content because that’s the reality of my life: I’m in debt, I’m learning how to get out of it, and I want to share my story. Maybe it goes along with the idea of PF being personal?

    (I’m part of the new Happy Homeowner team. It’s now me, Mark, and Noah at the reigns. Stop by and read our post from the other day where we introduced ourselves!)

  26. Interesting article, Erin. And I agree with you 100%. During my recent career transition, I had a similar discussion with a (PhD educated) female friend who pointed out that men tend to have the confidence to apply for jobs they are unqualified for more frequently than women. Perhaps a similar mindset applies to female bloggers who shy away from investment advice? Most of our blogs include a disclaimer, so what are we so afraid of? I personally hope to read and write about investing a lot more in 2015. Now that I’m earning full-time income, I want to save more, invest more, and generate more passive revenue. Happy New Year, friend!

  27. Fun topic!

    I worked in finance for 13 years, got an MBA at Berkeley, have my series 7 and 63 which is soon to expire, have many different types of investments and still do not feel comfortable giving people investment advice.

    I am amazed and impressed by people who do, we might not be qualified as you say. But in a BULL MARKET, everybody is a genius. Hence, I do fear some major pain one the markets correct for an extended period of time.

    In my marketing consulting gig, I’ve found that women are not very engaged when ads or content is promoted to them. The click through rates are much lower than men’s. I’m not sure why. Maybe finance is just more interesting to more men?

  28. That’s a very good question about why there aren’t more women in finance. As a woman in 3 male-dominated fields (inventing, manufacturing, speaking), it really is an uphill battle. As far as women have come, I still think we have a long way to go in fields that are typically male-dominated.

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